{{redirect|Cascades}} Image:Rainierreflect1.jpg]] Image:Trilliumlake.jpg]] Image:Mount_Adams.jpg in Washington]] The '''Cascade Range''' is a Mountainous region famous for its chain of tall Volcanoes called the '''High Cascades''' that run north-south along the west coast of North_America from British_Columbia through Washington and Oregon to the Shasta_Cascade area of Northern_California. The small part of the range in British Columbia is called the '''Cascade Mountains''' or '''Canadian Cascades'''; the former term is also sometimes used by Washington residents to refer to the Washington section of the Cascades. The Cascades are part of the Pacific_Ring_of_Fire, the ring of volcanoes around the Pacific_Ocean. All of the known historic eruptions in the Contiguous_United_States have been from Cascade volcanoes. The two most recent were Lassen_Peak in 1914 to 1921 and a major eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980. Minor eruptions of Mount St. Helens have also occurred, most recently in 2005. Image:Mount_Jefferson.jpg in Oregon.]] == History == Native Americans have inhabited the area for thousands of years and developed their own myths and Legends concerning the Cascades. According to some of these tales, Mounts Baker, Jefferson, and Shasta were used as refuge from a great Flood. Other stories, such as the Bridge of the Gods tale, had various High Cascades such as Hood and Adams, act as god-like chiefs who made War by throwing fire and stone at each other. St. Helens with its pre-1980 graceful appearance, was regaled as a beautiful maiden for whom Hood and Adams feuded. Among the many stories concerning Mount Baker, one tells that the mountain was formerly married to Mount Rainier and lived in that vicinity. Then, because of a marital dispute, she picked herself up and marched north to her present position. Native tribes also developed their own names for the High Cascades and many of the smaller peaks, the most well-known to non-natives being Tahoma, the Lushootseed name for Mount_Rainier. The legendary and diverse ethnographic history of the Cascade Range is too complex to recount here, except to say that the spine of the range forms the divide between the Interior Salish and Coast Salish language groupings, and mythographically between the realm of Coyote on the east and that of the Transformers and the spirit-world of the Coast on the west. Legends associated with the great volcanoes are many, as well as with other peaks and geographical features of the range, including its many hot springs and waterfalls and rock towers and other formations. Stories of Tahoma - today Mount_Rainier and the namesake of Tacoma,_Washington - allude to great, hidden grottos with sleeping giants, apparitions and other marvels in the volcanoes of Washington, and Mount_Shasta in California has long been well-known for its associations with everything from Lemurians to aliens to elves and, as everywhere in the Cascades, Sasquatch or Bigfoot. In the spring of 1792 British navigator George_Vancouver entered Puget_Sound and started to give English names to the high mountains he saw. Mount_Baker was named for Vancouver's third lieutenant, the graceful Mount_St._Helens for a famous diplomat, Mount_Hood was named in honor of Samuel_Hood,_1st_Viscount_Hood (an Admiral of the Royal_Navy) and the tallest Cascade, Mount_Rainier, is the namesake of Admiral Peter_Rainier. Vancouver's expedition did not, however, name the range these peaks belonged to. As marine trade in the Strait_of_Georgia and Puget_Sound proceeded in the 1790s and beyond the summits of Rainier and Baker became familiar to captains and crews (mostly British and American over all others, but not exclusively). In 1805 the Lewis_and_Clark_expedition passed through the Cascades by using the Columbia_River, which for many years was the only practical way to pass that part of the range. Trade on the lower Columbia_River, which skirts the southern end of the range, did not occur until after Lewis_and_Clark in 1806, more specifically as a result of David_Thompson's visit on behalf of the Hudson's_Bay_Company shortly afterwards, and Simon_Fraser's journey down the Fraserin 1808. The Lewis and Clark expedition, and the many settlers and traders that followed, met their last obstacle to their journey at the Cascades_Rapids in the Columbia_River_Gorge, a feature on the river now submerged beneath Lake Bonneville. Before long, the great white-capped mountains that loomed above the rapids were called the "mountains by the cascades" and later simply as the "Cascades" (the earliest attested use of this name is in the writings of botanist David_Douglas). On their return trip Lewis_and_Clark's group spotted a high but distant snowy pinnacle that they named for the sponsor of the expedition, U.S. President Thomas_Jefferson. Image:Shasta_from_south.jpg ]] Exploration and settlement of the Cascades region by Europeans and Americans was accelerated by the establishment of a major trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort_Vancouver near today's Portland,_Oregon. From this base, HBC trapping parties traveled throughout the Cascades in search of beaver and other fur-bearing animals. For example, using what became known as the Siskiyou_Trail, HBC trappers were the first non-natives to explore the southern Cascades in the 1820s and 1830s, establishing trails which passed near Crater_Lake, Mount_McLoughlin, Medicine_Lake_Volcano, Mount_Shasta and Lassen_Peak. The course of political history in the Pacific_Northwest saw the spine of the Cascade Range being proposed as a boundary settlement during the Oregon_Dispute of 1846, which was rejected by the United_States which insisted on the 49th_Parallel, which cuts across the range just north of Mount Baker. Throughout the period of dispute and up to the creation of the Crown_Colony of British_Columbia in 1858, the edge of the range along the Columbia and Okanogan Rivers formed the main express route of the Hudson's Bay Company's busy traffic, and passes across the range were used by HBC staff at Forts Nisqually and Puyallup. The vast majority of non-native residents of the Cascade Range region until about 1840 were British subjects, most of mixed French-native blood and some Hawaiians and blacks as well as Scots who were the backbone of Hudson's Bay Company administration. American settlement of the flanks of the Coast Range did not occur until the early 1840s, at first only marginally. Following the Oregon_Treaty the inward flux of migration from the Oregon_Trail intensified and the passes and back-valleys of what is now the State_of_Washington became explored and populated, and it was not long after that railways followed. Despite its being traversed by several major freeways and rail lines, and its lower flanks subjected to major logging in recent decades, large parts of the range remain intense and forbidding alpine wilderness. Most of the northern half of the High Cascades, from Rainier north, have been preserved by US national or BC provincial parks or other forms of protected area. The Canadian side of the range has a history that includes the Fraser_Canyon_Gold_Rush of 1858-60 and its famous Cariboo_Road, as well as the older Hudson's_Bay_Company Brigade Trail from the Canyon to the Interior, the Dewdney Trail and older routes which connected east to the Similkameen and Okanagan valleys. The southern mainline of the CPR penetrated the range via the passes of the Coquihalla_River, along one of the steepest and snowiest routes in the entire Pacific Cordillera. The railway's roadbed, now decommissioned, is a popular tourist recreation destination, the Othello_Tunnels, a hiking and biking trail near Hope, B.C. (Waystations along the line were given Shakespearean names by the local CBC administrator). The pass itself is used by BC Highway 5 (Coquihalla_Highway), a government Megaproject built as part of the Expo_86 spending boom of the 1980s, which is now the main route from the Coast to the British_Columbia Interior. Traffic formerly went via the Fraser_Canyon, to the west, or via Allison_Pass and Manning_Park along Highway 3 to the south, near the border. Image:Lassen-Peak-Large.jpg in California]] The Barlow_Trail was the first established land path for U.S. settlers through the Cascade Range in 1845, and formed the final overland link for the Oregon_Trail (previously, settlers had to raft down the treacherous rapids of the Columbia_River). The Barlow Trail left the Columbia at Hood River and passed along the south side of Mt. Hood at Government Camp, terminating in Oregon City. There is an interpretive site there now at "The End of The Oregon Trail." The trail was constructed as a toll road - $5/wagon - and was very successful. With the exception of the 1915 eruption of remote Lassen_Peak in Northern_California, the range was quiet for more than a century. Then, on May_18, 1980, the dramatic eruption of little-known Mount_St._Helens shattered the quiet and brought the world's attention to the range. Geologists were also concerned that the St. Helens eruption was a sign that long-dormant Cascade volcanoes might become active once more, as in the period from 1800 to 1857 when a total of eight erupted. None have erupted since St. Helens, but precautions are being taken nevertheless, such as the Mount Rainier Volcano Lahar Warning System in Pierce_County,_Washington.http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/About/Highlights/RainierPilot/Pilot_highlight.html ==Geography== Image:Mount-rainier-over-tacoma.jpg, with Tacoma,_Washington in foreground]] At its southern end the range is about 30 to 50 miles (50 to 80 km) wide and 4500 to 5000 feet (1370 to 1520 m) high but is higher and 80 miles (130 km) wide in northern Washington. The tallest volcanoes of the Cascades (called the High Cascades) dominate the rest of the range, often standing twice the height of the surrounding mountains and thus often have a visual height of a mile (1.6 km) or more. The tallest peaks, such as the 14,411 foot (4392 m) high Mount_Rainier, dominate their surroundings for 50 to 100 miles (80 to 160 km). The northern part of the range, north of Mount_Rainier is extremely rugged, with many of the lesser peaks steep and glaciated. The valleys are quite low however, and major passes are only about 1000 m (3300 ft) high. Because of the range's proximity to the Pacific_Ocean, precipitation is substantial, especially on the western slopes, with annual accumulations of up to 150 inches (3800 mm) in some areas—Mount_Baker, for instance, apparently recorded the largest single-season snowfall on record in the world in 1999—and heavy snowfall as low as 2000 feet (600 m). It isn't uncommon for some places in the Cascades to have over 200 inches (5500 mm) of snow accumulation, like in Lake Helen, Lassen Peak, one of the snowiest places in the world. Most of the High Cascades are therefore white with snow and ice year-round. The western slopes are densely covered with Douglas-fir, Western_Hemlock and Red_alder, while the drier eastern slopes are mostly Ponderosa_Pine, with Western_Larch at higher elevations. Annual rainfall drops to 8 inches (200 mm) on the eastern Foothills due to a Rainshadow_effect. Beyond the foothills is an Arid plateau that was created 16 million years ago as a coalescing series of layered flood Basalt flows. Together these sequences of fluid Volcanic_rock form a 200,000 square mile (520,000 km2) region out of eastern Washington, Oregon, and parts of Northern_California and Idaho called the Columbia_River_Plateau. The Columbia_River_Gorge is the only major break in the American part of the Cascades. When the Cascades started to rise 7 million years ago in the Pliocene, the Columbia River drained the relatively low Columbia River Plateau. As the range grew, the Columbia was able to keep pace, creating the gorge and major pass seen today. The gorge also exposes uplifted and warped layers of basalt from the plateau. Another major pass was cut by the Fraser_River through mainly non-volcanic rocks in the British_Columbian part of the range. This group of mountains are often called the "Coast Mountains" but are in fact structurally part of the Cascades. Mount_Garibaldi and its associated group of volcanoes are in this part of the range. The country rocks here were derived from a mini-Continent that grafted itself to this part of North America 50 million years ago, carrying along its own Subduction_zone (see Juan_de_Fuca_Plate). ''See also:'' Map of the Southern Oregon Cascade Range ==Human uses== Soil conditions for Farming are generally excellent, especially downwind of volcanoes. This is largely due to the fact that volcanic rocks are often rich in Minerals such as Potassium and decay easily. Volcanic debris, especially Lahars, also have a leveling effect and the storage of Water in the form of snow and ice is also important. Much of that water eventually flows into reservoirs where it is used for recreation before its potential Energy is captured to generate Hydroelectric_power before being used to irrigate crops. In addition, there is a largely untapped amount of Geothermal_power that can be generated from the Cascades. The USGS Geothermal Research Program has been investigating this potential. Some of this energy is already being used in places like Klamath_Falls,_Oregon where volcanic Steam is used to heat public buildings. The highest recorded temperature found in the range is 510° F (265° C) at 3075 feet (937 m) below Newberry_Caldera's floor. ==High Cascades== Image:Cascade_Range_map.png (which is north of this image's extent).]] Listed north to south: *Mount_Garibaldi (British Columbia) - heavily eroded by Glaciers and has three principal peaks. Mount Garibaldi is not part of the Cascade Range, but of the Pacific_Ranges of the Coast_Mountains complex. It is nonetheless classified in the Cascade group or family of volcanoes. But while other volcanoes to the north in the Pacific_Ranges are not considered part of the Cascades, they, however, are part of the Garibaldi_Volcanic_Belt. *Mount_Baker (Near the United_States-Canada border) - highest peak in northern Washington. It still shows some steam activity from its crater, though it is considered dormant. *Glacier_Peak (northern Washington) - secluded and relatively inaccessible peak. Contrary to its name, its glacial cover isn't that extensive. The volcano is surprisingly small in volume, and gets most of its height by having grown atop a nonvolcanic ridge. *Mount_Rainier (southeast of Tacoma,_Washington) - highest peak in the Cascades, it dominates the surrounding landscape. There is no other higher peak northwards until the Yukon-Alaska-BC border apex beyond the Alsek_River. *Mount_St._Helens (southern Washington) - Erupted in 1980, completely leveling the surrounding area and sending ash across the northwest. The northern part of the mountain was destroyed in the blast (see 1980_Mount_St._Helens_eruption). *Mount Adams (east of Mount St. Helens) - the second highest peak in Washington and third highest in the Cascade Range. *Mount_Hood (northern Oregon) - the highest peak in Oregon and the most frequently climbed major peak in the Cascades. *Mount Jefferson (northcentral Oregon) - the second highest peak in Oregon. *Three_Fingered_Jack (northcentral Oregon) - Highly eroded Pleistocene volcano. *Mount Washington (between Santiam and McKenzie passes) - a highly eroded shield volcano. http://areas.wildernet.com/pages/area.cfm?areaname=Mount%20Washington%20Wilderness&CU_ID=144 *Three Sisters (near the city of Bend,_Oregon) - South Sister is the highest and youngest, with a well defined crater. Middle Sister is more pyramidal and eroded. North Sister is the oldest and has a crumbling rock pinnacle. *Broken_Top (to the southeast of South Sister) - a highly eroded extinct Stratovolcano. Contains Bend Glacier. *Newberry_Volcano and Newberry_Caldera - isolated Caldera with two crater Lakes. Very variable lavas. Flows from here have reached the city of Bend. *Mount_Bachelor (near Three Sisters) - a geologically young (less than 15,000 years) shield-to-stratovolcano which is now the site of a popular ski resort. *Mount Bailey (north of Mount Mazama) *Mount_Thielsen (east of Mount Bailey) - highly eroded volcano with a prominent spire, making it the Lightning Rod of the Cascades. *Mount_Mazama (southern Oregon) - better known as Crater_Lake, which is a Caldera formed by a catastrophic eruption which took out most of the summit roughly 6,900 years ago. Mt. Mazama is estimated to have been about 11,000 ft. elevation prior to the blast. *Mount_McLoughlin (near Klamath_Falls,_Oregon) - presents a symmetrical appearance when viewed from Klamath_Lake. *Medicine_Lake_Volcano - a large Shield_volcano in Northern_California *Mount_Shasta (northern California) - second highest peak in the Cascades. Can be seen as far as the Sacramento Valley, 60 miles away, as it is a dominating feature of the region. *Lassen_Peak (south of Mt. Shasta) - southernmost volcano in the Cascades and the most easily climbed peak in the Cascades, it erupted 1914-1921 ==Protected areas== There are four U.S._National_Parks in the Cascade Range and many U.S._National_Monuments, U.S._Wilderness_Areas, and U.S._National_Forests. Each classification protects the various Glaciers, volcanoes, geothermal fields, rivers, lakes, forests, and wildlife to varying degrees. ===National parks=== *Lassen_Volcanic_National_Park was established in 1916 while its namesake peak was erupting. The park includes the most extensive and active thermal areas in the United_States outside Yellowstone_National_Park. *Crater_Lake_National_Park preserves the remains of Mount_Mazama, a large volcano that imploded thousands of years ago, forming a Caldera that was later filled with Crater_Lake. *Mount_Rainier_National_Park surrounds the Cascades' tallest volcano, Mount_Rainier, which in turn is shrouded in the largest Glacier system in the United States south of Alaska. *North_Cascades_National_Park was carved out of a primitive part of the range composed of ancient metamorphic and Sedimentary_rock. Mount_Baker and Glacier_Peak are nearby. ===National monuments=== *Mount_St._Helens_National_Volcanic_Monument was formed following the 1980 eruption of Mount_St._Helens in order to preserve the devastated area and give scientists a chance to study its recovery. *Newberry_National_Volcanic_Monument includes the area around Newberry_Volcano in central Oregon. *Lava_Beds_National_Monument in California lies on the northeast flank of the Medicine_Lake_Volcano and is the site of the largest concentration of lava tube caves in the United States. ==Provincial Parks== *Garibaldi_Provincial_Park includes Mount_Garibaldi and the southern part of the Garibaldi_Volcanic_Belt (although not technically part of the Cascade Range). *Skagit_Valley_Provincial_Park *E.C._Manning_Provincial_Park *Cascade_Recreation_Area *Cathedral_Provincial_Park *Coquihalla_Canyon_Provincial_Park ==See also== *Cascadia == References == *''Fire Mountains of the West: The Cascade and Mono Lake Volcanoes'', Stephen L. Harris, (Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula; 1988) ISBN 0-87842-220-X * Fred Beckey. 1973. ''Cascade Alpine Guide'' (3 vols.) (The Mountaineers, Seattle). * Stephen L. Harris. 1976. ''Fire and Ice'' (The Mountaineers, Seattle). *USGS: Living With Volcanic Risk in the Cascades ==External links== *Central and Southern Cascades Forests images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu (slow modem version) *Eastern Cascades Forests images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu (slow modem version) *Cascade Mountains Leeward Forests images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu (slow modem version) *British Columbia Mainland Coastal Forests images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu (slow modem version) *University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Dwight Watson Photographs Photographs taken by mountaineer and amateur photographer Dwight Watson of hiking and skiing expeditions in the Cascade and Olympic Mountain ranges of Washington State, ca. 1920s-1960s. Includes, among others, scenic images of Mt. Rainier, Mt. Baker, Glacier Peak, and Mt. Adams. *Museum of the Siskiyou Trail Category:Cascade_Range Category:Geologic_provinces_of_California Category:Mountain_ranges_of_British_Columbia Category:Mountain_ranges_of_California Category:Mountain_ranges_of_Canada Category:Mountain_ranges_of_Oregon Category:Mountain_ranges_of_Washington Category:Subduction_volcanoes Category:Volcanoes_of_Canada Category:Volcanoes_of_the_United_States De:Kaskadenkette Da:Cascades Fr:Chaîne_des_Cascades Ja:カスケード山脈 Nl:Kustgebergte No:Kaskadefjellene Sk:Kaskádové_vrchy Fi:Kaskadit